Course Offerings

SSE #115: New Ideas About Nutrition and the Adaptation to Endurance Training
SSE #114: Nutritional Recommendations to Avoid Gastrointestinal Complications During Exercise
SSE #113: Sleep and the Elite Athlete
SSE #111: Assessing Hydration in the Laboratory and Field
SSE #110: Dietary Nitrate: The New Magic Bullet?
SSE #109: Is There a Need for Protein Ingestion During Exercise?
SSE #108: Multiple Transportable Carbohydrates and Their Benefits
SSE #107: Protein Consumption and Resistance Exercise: Maximizing Anabolic Potential
SSE #104: Should Athletes Stretch Before Exercise?
SSE #103: Sickle Cell Trait and the Athlete
SSE #100: Nutrition to Promote Recovery from Exercise
SSE #98: Metabolic Factors in Fatigue
SSE #96: Herbs and Athletes
SSE #95: Collapse in the Endurance Athlete
SSE #90: Diabetes, Exercise and Competitive Sports
SSE #91: Scientifically Debatable: Is Creatine Worth Its Weight?
SSE #93: Highs and Lows of Carbohydrate Diets
SSE #94: Creatine, Carbs, and Fluids: How Important in Soccer Nutrition?

CONTINUING
EDUCATION

The Gatorade Sports Science Institute is pleased to offer continuing education credits on a wide variety of subjects of interest to the sports health professional.

Our online tests are designed to provide you with current, relevant and practical information authored by experts in the fields of exercise physiology and sports nutrition.

How Do I Earn CE Credits?
  • Login or Register
  • Select a test to take.
  • Take your test.  You must answer all questions correctly to pass the test and apply for credits.
  • Print your certificate
  • Keep the certificate for your records and submit it to ACSM, BOC, CDR or the USA Cycling Coaching Association at the time of your certification.

SSE #115: New Ideas About Nutrition and the Adaptation to Endurance Training

Classic endurance training increases the number of blood vessels and the mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle, with the largest changes occurring in type I fibers. Since most skeletal muscles are ~50% type I and 50% type II fibers, increasing the power/velocity at lactate threshold to a greater extent could be achieved by increasing the mitochondrial volume and number of blood vessels in type II fibers. Increasing the activity of PGC-1α, a protein that has been called the master regulator of increased mitochondria and blood vessels, is a way to achieve this in type II fibers. A simple nutritional strategy is presented that can be used to maximize this adaptive response to endurance training.

        

SSE #114: Nutritional Recommendations to Avoid Gastrointestinal Complications During Exercise

Many athletes suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) problems that may impair performance or recovery from exercise. These GI problems vary widely across athletes and symptoms may occur in both the upper and lower GI tract. The three primary causes of GI symptoms are physiological, mechanical and nutritional. Nutritional training and appropriate nutrition choices can reduce the risk of GI discomfort during exercise by assuring rapid gastric emptying and absorption of water and nutrients, and by maintaining adequate perfusion of the splanchnic vasculature. This article also discusses nutritional strategies to reduce the risk of GI symptoms during exercise.

        

SSE #113: Sleep and the Elite Athlete

Sleep is essential for athletes and sleep disturbances can occur both during training and following competition. The impact of sleep deprivation on athletic performance may vary based on the type of exercise or sport the athlete participates in. This article discusses methods to improve sleep and potentially athletic performance.

      

SSE #111: Assessing Hydration in the Laboratory and Field

The body has several methods of thermoregulation, one of which is evaporation via sweating. During exercise, sweating is the primary method for the human body to dissipate heat to maintain core body temperature. Dehydration can occur as a result of long-term sweating in the absence of fluid replacement, impacting the ability of the body to dissipate heat. Plasma sodium concentration and plasma volume can be impacted by dehydration as well as the osmolality of fluids consumed. This article discusses the benefits and limitations of assessing the various aspects of hydration in laboratory and field settings.

        

SSE #110: Dietary Nitrate: The New Magic Bullet?

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important physiological signaling molecule that can modulate skeletal muscle function through its role in the regulation of blood flow, muscle contractility, glucose and calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial respiration and biogenesis. This article examines the impact of nitrate supplementation during various forms of exercise on performance, dosages, and sources of dietary nitrate.

        

SSE #109: Is There a Need for Protein Ingestion During Exercise?

Muscle protein synthesis is regulated by two main anabolic stimuli, food intake and physical activity. Food intake, or rather protein ingestion, directly elevates muscle protein synthesis rates as does physical activity. This article examines the potential muscle building and performance benefits to consuming protein during exercise.

        

SSE #108: Multiple Transportable Carbohydrates and Their Benefits

During prolonged exercise, the performance benefits of carbohydrate ingestion may be achieved by maintaining plasma glucose concentration and high rates of carbohydrate oxidation. Studies demonstrated up to 65% higher exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates of multiple transportable carbohydrates (glucose:fructose) during exercise compared with a single carbohydrate (e.g., glucose only). Studies also demonstrated reduced fatigue and improved exercise performance with multiple transportable carbohydrates compared with a single carbohydrate. This article focuses on multiple transportable carbohydrates, ingestion rates, and when their use is most beneficial to athletes.

      

SSE #107: Protein Consumption and Resistance Exercise: Maximizing Anabolic Potential

Protein turnover, the concurrent process of muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein breakdown, allows the muscle fiber to change its protein structure if loading demands or diet changes. Protein consumption and resistance exercise are both potent stimulants of muscle protein synthesis. Strategies can be implemented to maximize muscle hypertrophy based on these stimuli.

        

SSE #104: Should Athletes Stretch Before Exercise?

Traditional stretching routines performed during warm-up activities before exercise can increase flexibility for a short time, but there is little scientific evidence that such routines can improve exercise performance, reduce delayed-onset muscular soreness, or prevent injuries. Until stronger science emerges, sports medicine practitioners and coaches should offer cautious advice to athletes.

    

SSE #103: Sickle Cell Trait and the Athlete

Sickle cell trait is an inherited condition of the oxygen-carrying protein, hemoglobin, in red blood cells. This genetic trait is generally benign, but during maximal exercise, the oxygen levels in muscles can decrease sufficiently to cause some of the red cells to change. The focus of the article is on sickling in sports, but also reviews the research done on sickling collapse by the U.S. Military.

      

SSE #100: Nutrition to Promote Recovery from Exercise

Strategies for optimizing recovery from exercise depend on the specific sports or type of exercise, its intensity and duration, and the time between training sessions and competition. Successful recovery involvesmany physiological and metabolic processes that act in concert to prepare the athlete for the next bout of exercise.

      

SSE #98: Metabolic Factors in Fatigue

Fatigue is a multifactorial process that reduces exercise and sport performance. This article reviews in detail the potential fatigue mechanisms responsible for the decline in force and/or power output by skeletetal muscle during exercise and the role of metabolic factors in those changes.

      

SSE #96: Herbs and Athletes

Herbs have a long history of use and it is conceivable that some may have health benefits for athletes and non-active people alike. This article reviews research, published in English on herbs used by athletes for the purpose of obtaining general health benefits and improvement in exercise performance.

      

SSE #95: Collapse in the Endurance Athlete

Exercise-associated collapse is a relatively common occurrence in endurance events, especially those occurring in high heat and humidity. Collapse while exercising is usually more serious especially when the athlete has unstable vital signs or an altered level of consciousness. Early diagnosis is essential so that proper treatment can be initiated.

      

SSE #90: Diabetes, Exercise and Competitive Sports

Regular exercise is highly recommended for many people who have either Type 1 DM or Type 2 DM diabetes. During exercise there is a rapid uptake of glucose from the blood and people with diabetes must adjust their pre-exercise insulin dosage and carbohydrate intake, before, during and after exercise. The benefits of regular exercise in people with diabetes are similar to those in persons without the disease as long as the diabetic is in good glucose control and has no major complications of the disease.

  

SSE #91: Scientifically Debatable: Is Creatine Worth Its Weight?

Creatine is a commonly used supplement that could potentially benefit short high-intensity exercise or improve response to resistance exercise training. However, the performance and metabolic response to creatine ingestion is varied. Those starting with low muscle creatine levels are more likely to but don't always have the best response. Since creatine supplementation boosts performance in some individuals and not others, this could be construed as unfair advantage. Many questions remain about the value of creatine supplementation for performance of various sports and about how much and when to use creatine - if it should be used at all. Evidence suggests that performance benefits resulting from creatine ingestion are predominantly observed during multiple tests lasting between 30 to 90 seconds. Also, when consumed in moderate doses, there seems to be no adverse effects of creatine supplementation in healthy adults.

  

SSE #93: Highs and Lows of Carbohydrate Diets

The scientific truth is that the amount and type of dietary carbohydrate should vary directly with the intensity and volume of exercise. A low-carbohydrate diet in athletes impairs their exercise tolerance and their ability to beneficially adapt to long-term physical training.

  

SSE #94: Creatine, Carbs, and Fluids: How Important in Soccer Nutrition?

There is no persuasive evidence that creatine supplementation is beneficial to soccer play. Because most of the running in soccer is at less than maximal speed, it is unlikely that creatine supplementation would have any important benefits. However, adequate dietary carbohydrate in the days and hours before strenuous training and competition is critical to maintaining adequate glycogen level in the muscles. Also, even slight dehydration can be detrimental to impair performance in soccer.